In 1893 the Leigh Local Board purchased the Astley Hall (Damhouse) Estate with the intention of turning the site into a sanatorium for infectious diseases with the late Elizabethan manor house becoming an administration block. Just over a century later the sanatorium, which had become a general hospital was closed, the wards demolished and thankfully the manor house was restored by the Mort’s Astley Heritage Trust. The hospital, which was at the heart of the Astley community, exists in local memory but has all but disappeared physically, apart from one little building that was used as the Smallpox hospital, tucked away down a country lane.

Coldahurst Lane, 1902

Map of Astley, 1936 (Source:
Map of Astley, 1936

By 1902, Astley Sanatorium had been functioning for a number of years and was successful in the treatment of Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever and Typhoid. That year the Joint Hospital Board purchased land down Coldalhurst Lane and built two ward blocks to deal with Smallpox patients. The buildings were built of corrugated iron and lined with wood. They were furnished inside and heated by radiators. Fortunately there was never an epidemic of the disease in the area.

There was a small cottage built near to the wards, for the superintendent of this isolated unit to live in. In 1911 56 year old Thomas Millichap and his wife Mary Ann are living there.

The map above shows the location of the Smallpox Hospital (bottom right) and its distance from Astley Sanatorium (top right). The Smallpox Hospital was built about half a mile away to avoid cross contamination with other patients.

Astley Sanatorium Ward Building, 2015 (Source: Old Photograph of Atherton and Tyldesley, P. Bond & D. Kinney, 2015)
Smallpox Ward Building, Astley Sanatorium, 2015
(Source: Old Photographs of Atherton and Tyldesley, P. Bond & D. Kinney, 2015)

World War One

As with many public and private buildings, Astley Sanatorium played its part in the war effort on the home front. On 23 October 1914, a group of 29 Belgian refugees arrived at the Astley, having fled their homes from the German invasion. It was decided to house the men, women and one two month old baby in the Smallpox Hospital which had not been used since 1906.

Belgian Refugees outside the Smallpox Hospital, October 1914 (Source: Leigh Chronicle, 23 October 1914, p. 18)
Belgian Refugees outside the Smallpox Hospital, October 1914
(Source: The Chronicle, 23 October 1914, p. 18)

Its seems quite unimaginable what these people went through and history seems to have largely forgotten the plight of the Belgians in the midst of the horrific nature of the war. Here is an excerpt from The Chronicle which provides an insight into the world at the time:

Yet these men and women were only a unit of the crowds who have had to flee for their lives. They have come across the Channel in all sorts of crafts in a panic-stricken rush from German rule. Twelve thousand came from Ostend in a single day. Most of them had spent the night at sea, without food or shelter, huddled together on the decks to keep warm. Transports, Channel steamers, pleasure boats, colliers, trawlers, dredgers, yachts, motor and rowing boats and fishing smacks were all used to bring the exiles over to Folkestone, Dover and Lowestoft. Their privations were severe and some terrible stories of hardships and distress are told. A child of three died on the way over in a fishing boat. A mother lost her baby which slipped out of her arms when she was overcome with sea-sickness.

The Belgian’s in the picture above had suffered as well; one man who had become separated from his wife and children had no idea of their whereabouts and several of the women had only the clothes they wore as they had to suddenly flee their homes under attack from the invading German Army.

Every effort was made by the local population to welcome their guests. The wards were decorated with flowers and a dinner was prepared with coffee afterwards. On Sunday the Belgians were escorted to St. Joseph’s Catholic Church in Leigh to celebrate mass and they received several invitations to tea at the homes of local people.

Group of Belgian women (left to right) Mrs Claudell, Mrs A. Claudell holding baby Marie Louise, Miss Emma Claudell (Source: The Chronicle, 23 October 1914, p.18)
Group of Belgian women
(left to right) Mrs Claudell, Mrs A. Claudell holding baby Marie Louise, Miss Emma Claudell
(Source: The Chronicle, 23 October 1914, p.18)

The Belgian refugees only stayed at the Smallpox temporarily until they were housed in proper accommodation. In 1915 the Smallpox hospital was used to treat German Prisoner’s of War who were suffering from infectious illnesses but due to the wartime conditions had to be treated in isolation away from the public. There was a large POW camp in Leigh, a few miles down the road from Astley.

The site today

The sanatorium at Astley grew in size during the 1930s as the catchment area for patients was widened but by 1948 it became a general hospital following the formation of the National Health Service. The Smallpox hospital itself was used in 1928, the local press reports that in June that year it had received patients suffering from the disease that month. However the Smallpox hospital had certainly become disused by the 1950s and this is recorded on maps of the time. The disease itself was eradicated in 1980 following a global immunization campaign by the World Health Organisation.

Today the former Smallpox hospital is on private property. One of the wards was demolished and a house now stands there and the surviving ward is used an outbuilding. Although modern housing estates have been built around Coldalhurst Lane, this little piece of history is still hidden down a secluded lane isolated from the rest of the village just as it was a century ago.


– John and Sylvia Tonge, Astley Hall (Damhouse), (Self Published, 2002)
The Chronicle, 23 October 1914 (Wigan Archives and Leigh Local Studies)
– Western Daily Press, 26 June 1928 (